pyscf.lo package

Submodules

pyscf.lo.boys module

Foster-Boys localization

pyscf.lo.boys.BF

alias of pyscf.lo.boys.Boys

class pyscf.lo.boys.Boys(mol, mo_coeff=None)[source]

Bases: pyscf.soscf.ciah.CIAHOptimizer

The Foster-Boys localization optimizer that maximizes the orbital dipole

sum_i | <i| r |i> |^2

Args:

mol : Mole object

Kwargs:
mo_coeffsize (N,N) np.array

The orbital space to localize for Boys localization. When initializing the localization optimizer bopt = Boys(mo_coeff),

Note these orbitals mo_coeff may or may not be used as initial guess, depending on the attribute .init_guess . If .init_guess is set to None, the mo_coeff will be used as initial guess. If .init_guess is ‘atomic’, a few atomic orbitals will be constructed inside the space of the input orbitals and the atomic orbitals will be used as initial guess.

Note when calling .kernel(orb) method with a set of orbitals as argument, the orbitals will be used as initial guess regardless of the value of the attributes .mo_coeff and .init_guess.

Attributes for Boys class:
verboseint

Print level. Default value equals to Mole.verbose.

max_memoryfloat or int

Allowed memory in MB. Default value equals to Mole.max_memory.

conv_tolfloat

Converge threshold. Default 1e-6

conv_tol_gradfloat

Converge threshold for orbital rotation gradients. Default 1e-3

max_cycleint

The max. number of macro iterations. Default 100

max_itersint

The max. number of iterations in each macro iteration. Default 20

max_stepsizefloat

The step size for orbital rotation. Small step (0.005 - 0.05) is prefered. Default 0.03.

init_guessstr or None

Initial guess for optimization. If set to None, orbitals defined by the attribute .mo_coeff will be used as initial guess. If set to ‘atomic’, atomic orbitals will be used as initial guess. Default is ‘atomic’

Saved results

mo_coeffndarray

Localized orbitals

ah_max_cycle = 40
ah_start_tol = 1000000000.0
ah_trust_region = 3
conv_tol = 1e-06
conv_tol_grad = None
cost_function(u=None)[source]
dump_flags(verbose=None)[source]
gen_g_hop(u)[source]
get_grad(u=None)[source]
get_init_guess(key='atomic')[source]

Generate initial guess for localization.

Kwargs:
keystr or bool

If key is ‘atomic’, initial guess is based on the projected atomic orbitals. False

init_guess = 'atomic'
kernel(mo_coeff=None, callback=None, verbose=None)

Kernel function is the main driver of a method. Every method should define the kernel function as the entry of the calculation. Note the return value of kernel function is not strictly defined. It can be anything related to the method (such as the energy, the wave-function, the DFT mesh grids etc.).

max_cycle = 100
max_iters = 20
max_stepsize = 0.05
pyscf.lo.boys.FB

alias of pyscf.lo.boys.Boys

pyscf.lo.boys.atomic_init_guess(mol, mo_coeff)[source]
pyscf.lo.boys.dipole_integral(mol, mo_coeff)[source]
pyscf.lo.boys.kernel(localizer, mo_coeff=None, callback=None, verbose=None)[source]

pyscf.lo.edmiston module

Edmiston-Ruedenberg localization

pyscf.lo.edmiston.ER

alias of pyscf.lo.edmiston.EdmistonRuedenberg

pyscf.lo.edmiston.Edmiston

alias of pyscf.lo.edmiston.EdmistonRuedenberg

class pyscf.lo.edmiston.EdmistonRuedenberg(mol, mo_coeff=None)[source]

Bases: pyscf.lo.boys.Boys

cost_function(u)[source]
gen_g_hop(u)[source]
get_grad(u)[source]
get_jk(u)[source]

pyscf.lo.iao module

Intrinsic Atomic Orbitals ref. JCTC, 9, 4834

pyscf.lo.iao.fast_iao_mullikan_pop(mol, dm, iaos, verbose=5)[source]
Args:

mol : the molecule or cell object

iaos2D array

(orthogonal or non-orthogonal) IAO orbitals

Returns:

mullikan population analysis in the basis IAO

pyscf.lo.iao.iao(mol, orbocc, minao='minao', kpts=None)[source]

Intrinsic Atomic Orbitals. [Ref. JCTC, 9, 4834]

Args:

mol : the molecule or cell object

orbocc2D array

occupied orbitals

Returns:

non-orthogonal IAO orbitals. Orthogonalize them as C (C^T S C)^{-1/2}, eg using orth.lowdin()

>>> orbocc = mf.mo_coeff[:,mf.mo_occ>0]
>>> c = iao(mol, orbocc)
>>> numpy.dot(c, orth.lowdin(reduce(numpy.dot, (c.T,s,c))))
pyscf.lo.iao.reference_mol(mol, minao='minao')[source]

Create a molecule which uses reference minimal basis

pyscf.lo.ibo module

Intrinsic Bonding Orbitals ref. JCTC, 9, 4834

Below here is work done by Paul Robinson. much of the code below is adapted from code published freely on the website of Gerald Knizia Ref: JCTC, 2013, 9, 4834-4843

pyscf.lo.ibo.MakeAtomIbOffsets(Atoms)[source]

calcualte offset of first orbital of individual atoms in the valence minimal basis (IB)

pyscf.lo.ibo.MakeAtomInfos()[source]
pyscf.lo.ibo.PM(mol, orbocc, iaos, s, exponent, minao='minao')

Note this localization is slightly different to Knizia’s implementation. The localization here reserves orthogonormality during optimization. Orbitals are projected to IAO basis first and the Mulliken pop is calculated based on IAO basis (in function atomic_pops). A series of unitary matrices are generated and applied on the input orbitals. The intemdiate orbitals in the optimization and the finally localized orbitals are all orthogonormal.

Examples:

>>> from pyscf import gto, scf
>>> from pyscf.lo import ibo
>>> mol = gto.M(atom='H 0 0 0; F 0 0 1', >>> basis='unc-sto3g')
>>> mf = scf.RHF(mol).run()
>>> pm = ibo.PM(mol, mf.mo_coeff[:,mf.mo_occ>0])
>>> loc_orb = pm.kernel()
pyscf.lo.ibo.Pipek(mol, orbocc, iaos, s, exponent, minao='minao')

Note this localization is slightly different to Knizia’s implementation. The localization here reserves orthogonormality during optimization. Orbitals are projected to IAO basis first and the Mulliken pop is calculated based on IAO basis (in function atomic_pops). A series of unitary matrices are generated and applied on the input orbitals. The intemdiate orbitals in the optimization and the finally localized orbitals are all orthogonormal.

Examples:

>>> from pyscf import gto, scf
>>> from pyscf.lo import ibo
>>> mol = gto.M(atom='H 0 0 0; F 0 0 1', >>> basis='unc-sto3g')
>>> mf = scf.RHF(mol).run()
>>> pm = ibo.PM(mol, mf.mo_coeff[:,mf.mo_occ>0])
>>> loc_orb = pm.kernel()
pyscf.lo.ibo.PipekMezey(mol, orbocc, iaos, s, exponent, minao='minao')[source]

Note this localization is slightly different to Knizia’s implementation. The localization here reserves orthogonormality during optimization. Orbitals are projected to IAO basis first and the Mulliken pop is calculated based on IAO basis (in function atomic_pops). A series of unitary matrices are generated and applied on the input orbitals. The intemdiate orbitals in the optimization and the finally localized orbitals are all orthogonormal.

Examples:

>>> from pyscf import gto, scf
>>> from pyscf.lo import ibo
>>> mol = gto.M(atom='H 0 0 0; F 0 0 1', >>> basis='unc-sto3g')
>>> mf = scf.RHF(mol).run()
>>> pm = ibo.PM(mol, mf.mo_coeff[:,mf.mo_occ>0])
>>> loc_orb = pm.kernel()
pyscf.lo.ibo.ibo(mol, orbocc, locmethod='IBO', iaos=None, s=None, exponent=4, grad_tol=1e-08, max_iter=200, minao='minao', verbose=3)[source]

Intrinsic Bonding Orbitals

This function serves as a wrapper to the underlying localization functions ibo_loc and PipekMezey to create IBOs.

Args:

mol : the molecule or cell object

orbocc : occupied molecular orbital coefficients

Kwargs:
locmethodstring

the localization method ‘PM’ for Pipek Mezey localization or ‘IBO’ for the IBO localization

iaos2D array

the array of IAOs

s2D array

the overlap array in the ao basis

Returns:

IBOs in the basis defined in mol object.

pyscf.lo.ibo.ibo_loc(mol, orbocc, iaos, s, exponent, grad_tol, max_iter, minao='minao', verbose=3)[source]

Intrinsic Bonding Orbitals. [Ref. JCTC, 9, 4834]

This implementation follows Knizia’s implementation execept that the resultant IBOs are symmetrically orthogonalized. Note the IBOs of this implementation do not strictly maximize the IAO Mulliken charges.

IBOs can also be generated by another implementation (see function pyscf.lo.ibo.PM). In that function, PySCF builtin Pipek-Mezey localization module was used to maximize the IAO Mulliken charges.

Args:

mol : the molecule or cell object

orbocc2D array or a list of 2D array

occupied molecular orbitals or crystal orbitals for each k-point

Kwargs:
iaos2D array

the array of IAOs

exponentinteger

Localization power in PM scheme

grad_tolfloat

convergence tolerance for norm of gradients

Returns:

IBOs in the big basis (the basis defined in mol object).

pyscf.lo.ibo.shell_str(l, n_cor, n_val)[source]

Help function to define core and valence shells for shell with different l

pyscf.lo.nao module

Natural atomic orbitals Ref:

  1. Weinhold et al., J. Chem. Phys. 83(1985), 735-746

pyscf.lo.nao.nao(mol, mf, s=None, restore=True)[source]
pyscf.lo.nao.prenao(mol, dm)[source]
pyscf.lo.nao.set_atom_conf(element, description)[source]

Change the default atomic core and valence configuration to the one given by “description”. See data/elements.py for the default configuration.

Args:
elementstr or int

Element symbol or nuclear charge

descriptionstr or a list of str
“double p” : double p shell
“double d” : double d shell
“double f” : double f shell
“polarize” : add one polarized shell
“1s1d” : keep core unchanged and set 1 s 1 d shells for valence
(“3s2p”,”1d”) : 3 s, 2 p shells for core and 1 d shells for valence

pyscf.lo.orth module

pyscf.lo.orth.lowdin(s)[source]

new basis is |mu> c^{lowdin}_{mu i}

pyscf.lo.orth.orth_ao(mf_or_mol, method='meta_lowdin', pre_orth_ao='ANO', s=None)[source]

Orthogonalize AOs

Kwargs:
methodstr

One of | lowdin : Symmetric orthogonalization | meta-lowdin : Lowdin orth within core, valence, virtual space separately (JCTC, 10, 3784) | NAO

pre_orth_ao: numpy.ndarray or basis str or basis dict

Basis functions may not have AO characters. This variable is the coefficients to restore AO characters for arbitrary basis. If a string of basis name (can be the filename of a basis set) or a dict of basis sets are given, they are interpreted as the reference basis (by default ANO basis) that the projection coefficients are generated based on. Skip this projection step by setting this variable to None.

pyscf.lo.orth.pre_orth_ao(mol, method='ANO')[source]

Restore AO characters. Possible methods include the ANO/MINAO projection or fraction-averaged atomic RHF calculation

pyscf.lo.orth.pre_orth_ao_atm_scf(mol)[source]
pyscf.lo.orth.pre_orth_project_ano(mol, ref_basis)

projected AO = |bas><bas|ANO>

args:
ref_basisstr or basis dict

Name, or filename, or a dict of reference basis set

pyscf.lo.orth.project_to_atomic_orbitals(mol, ref_basis)[source]

projected AO = |bas><bas|ANO>

args:
ref_basisstr or basis dict

Name, or filename, or a dict of reference basis set

pyscf.lo.orth.restore_ao_character(mol, method='ANO')

Restore AO characters. Possible methods include the ANO/MINAO projection or fraction-averaged atomic RHF calculation

pyscf.lo.orth.schmidt(s)[source]
pyscf.lo.orth.vec_lowdin(c, s=1)[source]

lowdin orth for the metric c.T*s*c and get x, then c*x

pyscf.lo.orth.vec_schmidt(c, s=1)[source]

schmidt orth for the metric c.T*s*c and get x, then c*x

pyscf.lo.orth.weight_orth(s, weight)[source]

new basis is |mu> c_{mu i}, c = w[(wsw)^{-1/2}]

pyscf.lo.pipek module

Pipek-Mezey localization

ref. JCTC 10, 642 (2014); DOI:10.1021/ct401016x

pyscf.lo.pipek.PM

alias of pyscf.lo.pipek.PipekMezey

pyscf.lo.pipek.Pipek

alias of pyscf.lo.pipek.PipekMezey

class pyscf.lo.pipek.PipekMezey(mol, mo_coeff=None, mf=None)[source]

Bases: pyscf.lo.boys.Boys

The Pipek-Mezey localization optimizer that maximizes the orbital population

Args:

mol : Mole object

Kwargs:
mo_coeffsize (N,N) np.array

The orbital space to localize for PM localization. When initializing the localization optimizer bopt = PM(mo_coeff),

Note these orbitals mo_coeff may or may not be used as initial guess, depending on the attribute .init_guess . If .init_guess is set to None, the mo_coeff will be used as initial guess. If .init_guess is ‘atomic’, a few atomic orbitals will be constructed inside the space of the input orbitals and the atomic orbitals will be used as initial guess.

Note when calling .kernel(orb) method with a set of orbitals as argument, the orbitals will be used as initial guess regardless of the value of the attributes .mo_coeff and .init_guess.

Attributes for PM class:
verboseint

Print level. Default value equals to Mole.verbose.

max_memoryfloat or int

Allowed memory in MB. Default value equals to Mole.max_memory.

conv_tolfloat

Converge threshold. Default 1e-6

conv_tol_gradfloat

Converge threshold for orbital rotation gradients. Default 1e-3

max_cycleint

The max. number of macro iterations. Default 100

max_itersint

The max. number of iterations in each macro iteration. Default 20

max_stepsizefloat

The step size for orbital rotation. Small step (0.005 - 0.05) is prefered. Default 0.03.

init_guessstr or None

Initial guess for optimization. If set to None, orbitals defined by the attribute .mo_coeff will be used as initial guess. If set to ‘atomic’, atomic orbitals will be used as initial guess. Default ‘atomic’

pop_methodstr

How the orbital population is calculated, see JCTC 10, 642 (2014) for discussion. Options are: - ‘meta-lowdin’ (default) as defined in JCTC 10, 3784 (2014) - ‘mulliken’ original Pipek-Mezey scheme, JCP 90, 4916 (1989) - ‘lowdin’ Lowdin charges, JCTC 10, 642 (2014) - ‘iao’ or ‘ibo’ intrinsic atomic orbitals, JCTC 9, 4384 (2013) - ‘becke’ Becke charges, JCTC 10, 642 (2014) The IAO and Becke charges do not depend explicitly on the basis set, and have a complete basis set limit [JCTC 10, 642 (2014)].

exponentint

The power to define norm. It can be 2 or 4. Default 2.

Saved results

mo_coeffndarray

Localized orbitals

atomic_pops(mol, mo_coeff, method=None)[source]
Kwargs:
methodstring

The atomic population projection scheme. It can be mulliken, lowdin, meta_lowdin, iao, or becke

Returns:

A 3-index tensor [A,i,j] indicates the population of any orbital-pair density |i><j| for each species (atom in this case). This tensor is used to construct the population and gradients etc.

You can customize the PM localization wrt other population metric, such as the charge of a site, the charge of a fragment (a group of atoms) by overwriting this tensor. See also the example pyscf/examples/loc_orb/40-hubbard_model_PM_localization.py for the PM localization of site-based population for hubbard model.

conv_tol = 1e-06
cost_function(u=None)[source]
dump_flags(verbose=None)[source]
exponent = 2
gen_g_hop(u)[source]
get_grad(u=None)[source]
pop_method = 'meta_lowdin'
pyscf.lo.pipek.atomic_pops(mol, mo_coeff, method='meta_lowdin', mf=None)[source]
Kwargs:
methodstring

The atomic population projection scheme. It can be mulliken, lowdin, meta_lowdin, iao, or becke

Returns:

A 3-index tensor [A,i,j] indicates the population of any orbital-pair density |i><j| for each species (atom in this case). This tensor is used to construct the population and gradients etc.

You can customize the PM localization wrt other population metric, such as the charge of a site, the charge of a fragment (a group of atoms) by overwriting this tensor. See also the example pyscf/examples/loc_orb/40-hubbard_model_PM_localization.py for the PM localization of site-based population for hubbard model.

pyscf.lo.vvo module

Valence Virtual Orbitals ref. 10.1021/acs.jctc.7b00493

pyscf.lo.vvo.livvo(mol, orbocc, orbvirt, locmethod='IBO', iaos=None, s=None, exponent=4, grad_tol=1e-08, max_iter=200, verbose=None)[source]

Localized Intrinsic Valence Virtual Orbitals ref. 10.1021/acs.jctc.7b00493

Localized Intrinsic valence virtual orbitals are formed when the valence virtual orbitals are localized using an IBO-type of localization. Here the VVOs are created in the IAO basis then the IBO localization functions are called to localize the VVOs.

Args:

mol : the molecule or cell object

orbocc : occupied molecular orbital coefficients

orbvirt : virtual molecular orbital coefficients

Kwargs:
locmethodstring

the localization method ‘PM’ for Pipek Mezey localization or ‘IBO’ for the IBO localization

iaos2D array

the array of IAOs

s2D array

the overlap array in the ao basis

Returns:

LIVVOs in the basis defined in mol object.

pyscf.lo.vvo.vvo(mol, orbocc, orbvirt, iaos=None, s=None, verbose=None)[source]

Valence Virtual Orbitals ref. 10.1021/acs.jctc.7b00493

Valence virtual orbitals can be formed from the singular value decomposition of the overlap between the canonical molecular orbitals and an accurate underlying atomic basis set. This implementation uses the intrinsic atomic orbital as this underlying set. VVOs can also be formed from the null space of the overlap of the canonical molecular orbitals and the underlying atomic basis sets (IAOs). This is not implemented here.

Args:

mol : the molecule or cell object

orbocc : occupied molecular orbital coefficients

orbvirt : virtual molecular orbital coefficients

Kwargs:
iaos2D array

the array of IAOs

s2D array

the overlap array in the ao basis

Returns:

VVOs in the basis defined in mol object.

Module contents